Chemistry / Water Physical States

Water Physical States

Water is found in nature in three physical states , namely: Liquid , Solid and Gaseous .

Thus, the water cycle corresponds to the water movement of nature and therefore presents the processes of water transformation.

In other words, changes in the physical states of water occur through processes called: Fusion , Vaporization (Boiling and Evaporating), Solidification , Liquefaction (Condensation) and Sublimation.

Physical State Changes

The Three Physical States of Water

Depending on its shape, water can be found in three ways:

Liquid state

Found mostly on the planet by rivers, lakes and oceans; the liquid state has no form of its own.

Solid state

In the solid state, water has a shape, such as ice cubes. This is because water molecules are very close together due to temperature.

Gaseous state

In the gaseous state, the water particles are spaced apart and therefore have no definite shape.

Water Physical State Changes

Water Physical State Changes are divided into 5 processes , namely:


Change from solid state to liquid water state , caused by heating, for example, ice that melts on a hot day.

Also, the so-called " Melting Point " (PF) is the temperature at which water changes from solid state to liquid. In the case of water, the melting point is 0 ° C.


Change from liquid to gaseous state by heating water. Thus, the "Boiling Point" (PE) of a substance is the temperature at which that substance changes from liquid to gaseous state and, in the case of water, is 100 ° C.

Remember that Boiling and Evaporation are really types of vaporization. The difference of both lies in the speed of heating, that is, if performed slowly is called evaporation; however, if performed with rapid heating, it is called boiling.


Liquid to solid state change caused by cooling or cooling. In addition, the " Solidification Point " of water is 0 ° C. The most visible example is the water cubes we put in the refrigerator to make the ice cubes.


Also called Condensation , this process identifies the change from gaseous to liquid state due to cooling (cooling). As an example we can mention: the frost and the dew of the plants.


Change from solid to gaseous state by heating. It also refers to the change from gaseous to solid state (resublimation) by cooling, for example dry ice and mothballs.