Biology / Vegetable Kingdom

Vegetable Kingdom

The Vegetable Kingdom, or Kingdom Plantae, is characterized by autotrophs (producing their own food) and chlorophylls .

Through sunlight, they perform the process of photosynthesis and for this reason they are called photosynthesizing beings.

Remember that photosynthesis is the process by which plants absorb solar energy to produce their own energy. This occurs through the action of chlorophyll (pigment associated with the green color of plants) existing in their chloroplasts .

Plants form the basis of the food chain. They are producers of organic matter and feed heterotrophic beings, that is, they represent the group responsible for the nutrition of various consuming organisms .

This indicates that without the existence of these autotrophs, life on earth would be impossible.

General Characteristics of the Vegetable Kingdom

  • Eukaryotes (organized nucleus)
  • Autotrophs (produce their own food)
  • Photosynthesizers ( photosynthesis production)
  • Multicellular (multicellular)
  • Cells formed by vacuoles , chloroplasts and cellulose

Learn more :

  • Chlorophyll
  • Plant Hormones
  • Autotrophs and Heterotrophs

Plant Structure

Main structure of an angiosperm plant

Regarding their structure, basically the plants are formed by the root (fixation and feeding), stem (nutrient support and transport), leaves (photosynthesis), flowers (reproduction) and fruits (seed protection).

Also read :

  • Sheets
  • Root Types
  • Fruit Types
  • Stem Types
  • Flower Types and Their Functions

Vegetable Kingdom Classification

The Vegetable Kingdom is composed of vascular plants (pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms) that have sap-conducting vessels, and avascular plants (bryophytes), devoid of these vessels.



Bryophytes are small plants that do not receive direct sunlight as they inhabit humid places, for example, mosses.

The reproduction of this group occurs through the process of metagenesis, that is, it has a sexual phase that produces gametes and another asexual one that produces spores.

Moreover, they do not have sap conducting vessels, which makes them distinct from other plant groups. Thus, nutrient transport occurs through a slow process of cell diffusion.


Deer antler

Pteridophytes have more variety than bryophytes. They are plants that are mostly terrestrial and inhabit places with high humidity. Some examples of this group: ferns, fences and xaxins.

They have conductive vessels of sap, root, stem and leaves and, like bryophytes, the reproduction of these vegetables occurs through a sexual and asexual phase.

When the stem of the pteridophytes is underground, it is called a rhizome . Epiphytes, on the other hand, are plants that lean on other plants, but without causing damage to them, such as ferns and deer antlers.



The gymnosperm group is composed of a wide variety of trees and shrubs of various sizes.

They are vascular plants (presence of sap-conducting vessels), which have root, stem, leaf and seeds. Some examples of gymnosperms: sequoias, pines, araucaria, among others.

The reproduction of Gymnosperms is sexual. Fertilization occurs in the female organs by pollen, which is produced by the male organs and transported with the aid of nature through wind, rain, insects and birds.

What differs them from the Angiosperm group is mainly its seeds, since they have the so-called bare seeds, ie, not involved by the ovary.



Angiosperms are vascular plants, ie they have conductive vessels. They inhabit different environments and represent a very diverse group of small and large vegetables.

Angiosperms characterize the largest group in the plant kingdom, with approximately 200,000 species.

They are distinct from Gymnosperms in that their seeds are stored inside the fruit. Its reproduction is sexual and fertilization occurs with the presence of male pollen.


The Vegetable Kingdom is made up of approximately 400,000 known species and is therefore one of the largest groups of living things.

Being self-sufficient organisms (autotrophs), plants were the first inhabitants of planet Earth.

Carnivorous plants

Carnivorous or insectivorous plants are a curious case of the Vegetable Kingdom, as they have a peculiar feature that has attracted the attention of many scientists.

They also perform photosynthesis, however, because they inhabit nutrient-poor soils, they seek nutritional supplementation through the digestion of some small animals. For this, they usually catch small insects or, in some rarer cases, frogs, mice, small mammals and birds.

Parasitic Plants

Bird weed

They are known as parasitic plants of other vegetables because they need their sap for their nutrition. They seek from other photosynthesizing organisms the energy they need to survive as they do not produce enough.

There are approximately 300 species with these characteristics, some of them are: bird weed, ghost plant, mistletoe, golden vine, among others.