In Brazil, it is the result of the colonial and slave age established by the Portuguese colonizers.
The most striking feature of Brazilian racism is its unofficial character.
If the law gave slaves legal freedom, they were never really integrated into the economy and, without state assistance, many blacks fell into difficulties after freedom.
Thus, since the "Proclamation of the Republic" (1889), there has been no legal reference to any distinction of race.
Another attribute to conceal racism in Brazil was the whitening ideology , supported by government and scientific currents, such as the racial Darwinism and currents. hygienism . Thus, this ideology facilitated the entry of European and Arab immigrants into Brazilian lands.
The mestizaje , seen as the " whitening " of the population, took deep root in Brazilian society in the early twentieth century.
Thus, blacks were abandoning their African culture, replaced by white values, which makes the victims of racism their own executioner.
In practice, many blacks preferred to marry lighter-skinned mates, as their children would be less likely to suffer from racism. However, despite decades of economic growth, social disparities remain.
In the fight against racism and also in recognition of its existence, a law was created in 1951 that made it a criminal offense to refuse to host, serve, service or receive a client, buyer or student because of race or color prejudice. strong> Afonso Arinos Act ".
Subsequently, with the Federal Constitution of 1988, Law No. 7716 of January 5, 1989, made racism an unenforceable crime.
The implications of racism in Brazil , as a structure of political, cultural and social domination, do not only allude to the socioeconomic segregation of this population. They imply, in fact, ethnocide and genocide of the black and indigenous population from the earliest days of Portuguese colonization to the present day.
" social apartheid " manifests itself, therefore, in social discrimination that has an implicit racial dimension, where most of the disadvantaged are black or of mixed race.
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According to IPEA (Institute of Applied Economic Research), in Brazil prejudice is always attributed to the “other”.
Thus, 63.7% of Brazilians understand that race determines the quality of life of citizens, especially at work (71%), in judicial matters (68.3%) and in social relations (65%).
In addition, 93% of respondents admitted racial prejudice in Brazil, but 87% said they never felt discriminated against; 89% of them claim to have color prejudice against blacks in Brazil, but only 10% admitted to having it. Finally, 70% of Brazilians living in poverty are black or brown.