Nazism

Juliana Bezerra

Following the mold of fascism that developed in Italy, Nazism was under the leadership of Adolf Hitler from 1933 to 1945.

The symbol of Nazism was the red flag with a gamma cross known as the swastika .

Nazism

This movement consisted of a mixture of dogmas and prejudices about the alleged superiority of the Aryan race. The Germans believed they were superior to other groups, especially Jews.

Nazism was not a completely new movement in German society. Other movements shared their extreme nationalism, their racism in an attempt to create a militaristic and reactionary society.

Anti-Semitic groups (Jewish aversion) had existed in Germany and Austria since the 19th century.

Moreover, many totalitarian regimes developed in the so-called “interwar” period, that is, between the first (1914-1918) and the second world war (1939-1945).

Nazism

Although they are totalitarian political regimes of similar inspiration and often used as synonyms, fascism and Nazism represent differences. These are movements that occurred at different times.

Fascism was an ideological movement prior to Nazism. It emerged in Italy in the so-called interwar period (1919-1939) being implanted by Benito Mussolini, which ran from 1919 to 1943.

In turn, Nazism was a totalitarian ideological movement developed in Germany by Adolf Hitler during World War II (1939-1945).

Origin of Nazism

In 1919, in Munich, Hitler joined a small group called the "German Labor Party", founded by a railway mechanic.

His program spoke of the welfare of the population, equality before the state, annulment of peace treaties, and exclusion of Jews from the community.

In 1920, Hitler, with his oratory ability in the service of the group, is already the main figure of the party. This contributed to the change of name to "National Socialist Party of German Workers" - Nazi (abbreviated from German term Nationalsozialist).

Captain Ernest Roehm incorporated into the party a paramilitary organization, the SA (Assault Sections), in charge of disturbing the meetings of the opponents.

The party program denounced Jews, Marxists, and foreigners, promised work, and the end of war reparations. In 1921, at the age of 33, Hitler becomes head of the party, which had only 3,000 members.

In 1923, the Nazis, led by Hitler, failed to attempt a coup in Munich. Hitler was sentenced to five years in prison. He completed eight months, which took the opportunity to write the first part of the book " Mein Kampf " (My Fight).

Inspired by fascism and Bolshevism, Hitler reorganized his party. It endowed him with regional administrative and hierarchical structures, a newspaper and paramilitary groups: in addition to SA, he created the SS (Security Brigades), the elite force.

In addition, it organized Hitler youth and supported trade unions and associations of lawyers, doctors, teachers, staff and other professionals.

Characteristics of Nazism

The Labor Party program (1920) and Hitler's texts synthesized his ideological proposal of the Nazi regime:

  • Totalitarianism - The individual belonging to the state could not be liberal or parliamentary, as it should not be fragmented due to particular interests. Like fascism, Nazism was antiparlament, antiliberal and undemocratic. It should have only one boss, the Führer. These principles could be summarized as: a people (Volk), an empire (Reich), a chief (Führer).
  • Racism - According to this ideology, the Germans belonged to a superior race, the Aryan race, which without mixing with other races, should rule the world. The Jews were considered their main enemies. The fight against other ideologies, such as Marxism, liberalism, Freemasonry and the Catholic Church, was fundamental.
  • Anti-Marxism and Anticapitalism - For Hitler, Marxism was the product of Jewish thought, since Marx was Jewish and proposed class struggle; capitalism would only aggravate inequalities, both undermined the unity of the state.
  • Nationalism - For Nazism, the humiliations arising from the Versailles Treaty should be destroyed. Greater Germany should be built, which was the grouping of the Germanic communities of Europe, such as Austria, the Sudetenland and Dantzig.

Nazism in Power

With the 1929 crisis, discontent took over Germany. The unemployed middle class, and the bourgeoisie, fearful of the growth of the "German Communist Party," thickened the ranks of the "Nazi Party."

In 1932, capitalist companies gave it financial support. That same year, several Nazi candidates won the elections.

In 1933, the support of the upper bourgeoisie led President Hindenburg to invite Hitler to fill the office of chancellor. The Nazis came to power, which gave them more strength to fight leftist parties.

In 1934, President Hindenburg died, and Parliament empowered Hitler, who began to accumulate the positions of chancellor and president.

The bloody Nazi dictatorship, supported by the SS, the AS and the Gestapo (political police of the dictatorship) was now installed in Germany.

With the beginning of the Third Reich, Hitler supplied the federalist state. The flag of the Nazi Party, with the swastika, became that of Germany.

The Führer began to implement the Nazi program and party members held all administration positions. Thus began the escalation of dictatorship and terror.

World War II

The Nazi regime, which was in force in Germany from 1933 to 1945, occurred during the period of World War II.

World War II was a major conflict between several countries facing a major economic, political and social crisis. This crisis was acquiring great proportions after the first world war (1914-1918).

The countries involved in World War II constitute two major groups:

  • the Allies, formed by England, France, the United States and the Soviet Union;
  • the Axis, consisting of Germany, Italy and Japan.

All the countries involved had imperialist pretensions and therefore fought for power and the conquest of territories.

With the rise of Hitler and the Nazi regime in Germany, the main objective was to unite the Germanic peoples. In this sense, exterminate Jews, Marxists, Socialists, Gypsies, etc.

Thus, in order to conquer territories and become the great world power, World War II begins the moment Hitler's army invades Poland on September 1, 1939. That territory belonged to them before the first war. worldwide.

Nazism and World War II ended in 1945, the year Hitler died. That same year, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and three days after Nagasaki, respectively on August 6 and 9, 1945.

Holocaust

The Holocaust represented the mass extermination that occurred during the Nazi regime in Germany, which killed about six million Jews in concentration camps.

Concentration camps represented the places where people who were considered by Hitler to be considered an "inferior race" were exterminated.

This horror committed against these minority and especially Jewish groups only ended in 1945, with the end of World War II.

Learn about the life of Anne Frank, one of the victims of the holocaust.

Neonazism

Neo-Nazism represents a contemporary movement inspired by Adolf Hitler's Nazi ideology.

The neo-Nazi groups began to emerge in the 70's and are scattered in various places around the world and can now be found by groups on the internet.

This movement is based on the radical doctrines of intolerance and violence under the ideal of superiority of the “pure Aryan race”.

Thus, neo-Nazis are usually racist and xenophobic with minority groups being black, immigrants, homosexuals, Jews, among others.

It is important to highlight that the apology to Nazism is not allowed in several countries of the world and is therefore considered a criminal practice.

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Juliana Bezerra