Molière (1622-1673) was a French playwright. One of the greatest highlights of French theater in the seventeenth century. Backed by Louis XIV, who admired his satires, comedies, and tragedies, he became the king's amusement provider.
Molière, Jean-Baptiste Poquelin was born in Paris, France, on January 15, 1622. The king's son was orphaned as a child. He studied at Clermont College from 1633 to 1639, but his study and prospect of pursuing his father's profession were not his goals. It was often found by the platforms mounted on the bridges over the Seine. France at that time had a great influence on European politics. King Louis XIV and Cardinal Richelieu endeavored to project it also in the cultural field. < / span>
The Theater In its heyday, Paris was the center of theatrical activities, but the actors of the time were disliked by public opinion and excommunicated by the church. King Louis XIV signed a law prohibiting disqualification from acting. The king financed the companies, Minister Cardinal Richelieu inaugurated new theaters such as Palais Cardinal and Palais Royal.
Some Historians They claim that Molière graduated in law and only later began to dedicate herself to the theater. Together with the brothers Béjart founded the company the "Illustrious Theater" and adopted the name Molière. His company cannot compete with the already established companies of the Hotel de Bourgogne and the Marais. The debts took him to prison. With the help of his father he is released and with the Béjart brothers joins the company of "Charles Du Fresne", with which he has toured several cities in the country, staging numerous plays for 14 years. span>
Molière searched the different types of personalities and deepened into the study of human character. He received from the writer Boileau the nickname "The Contemplator." During his pilgrimage he was an actor, director and author. In 1658, he obtained permission to perform before the king, with a play by Racine, who only failed by the liveliness of Molière who improvised a diplomatic speech, with all gestured staging. span>
Paris was the realm of intellectual snobbery, instead of water, was a chemical element. In 1659, Molière satirizes this behavior with the play "The Precious Ridicles", when he dares to present a farce with prosaic elements, where floured faces and colorful masks caricatured important personalities and exposed them to ridicule. It was his first big hit. To say I will think, Molière says "I will fish in the lake of memory with the thread of my thoughts." In 1661, it opens the new Palais Royal room, where it produces, directs, writes and interprets. span>
In 1662 , marries Armande Bejart, twenty years younger than him. In the same year she plays "School of Women". It addresses moral problems, portrays human virtues and defects. The play was a success. Victorious, receives a pension from the king and is declared "excellent comic poet". In 1664, supported by Louis XIV, who admired his satires, comedies, and tragedies, he became the king's amusement provider. span >
Among the mixed staging of music, ballet and theater, writes “The Tartufo”, the comedy that caused controversy. The character Tartufo is a false devotee who, using religion, introduces himself into an honest family and casually realizes his depraved purposes. Many religious present at the first performance felt portrayed as hypocrites. The church's reaction was swift and it banned the performance of the play.
Molière still stages "Don Juan" and "The Misanthrope", but does not give up on Tartufo. Remodel the play and take it to the public under the name "Panulfo" The play is immediately banned and the archbishop of Paris excommunicates the spectators. Molière also produces a series of comedies and tragedies, to the liking of the king, including: "Psyche", "The Bourgeois Hidalgo", "The Magnificent Lovers" and "The Wise Women", returning to the theater of social content, making great success. span>
Molière passed away in Paris, France, on February 17, 1673, on the stage, when she represented "The Imaginary Sweet" span>