Josué de Castro, Medical and Brazilian researcher

Josué de Castro (1908-1974) was a physician, researcher and Brazilian professor. Researched the problems of hunger and poverty in Brazil. Held conferences and studies about hunger in many countries. He taught at several universities in Brazil and the University of Vincennes, France.

Josué de Castro (1908-1974) was born in Recife, Pernambuco, on 5 September 1908. The son of Apollonius Manoel de Castro, landowner, and Josepha Carneiro de Castro, teacher, middle class family coming from the State hinterland. He made his first studies at home with his mother. He was a student of the College Carneiro Leão and then entered the Gymnasium Pernambucano. He went to Rio de Janeiro to study Medicine at the National School of Medicine in Brazil, where he remained for six years.

In 1929, already formed, back to Recife, concerned about the health of the population. He found the city in a period of political unrest in the campaign of the Liberal Alliance and the Revolution of 30. He kept away from political party activists. Developed research work on issues related to food and housing, in several working class neighborhoods of Recife.

His studies led him to discover that the famine was a real social catastrophe. It was against the claim that some studies admit that hunger is a result of physical, climatic and ethnic conditions. It concluded that the social gap resulted from the economic and social structures imposed by colonial and maintained at Imperial and Republican periods. In 1932, he wrote the book "Classes of Living Workers of Recife." Was Professor of Physiology at the Faculty of Medicine of Recife.

After the Communist Uprising in 1935, Joshua moved to Rio de Janeiro, he taught anthropology at the University of the Federal District and held work in missions of the federal government. In 1936, he published the book "Power and Race." In 1939, it is an official guest of the Italian government to hold conferences at the universities of Rome and Naples, on "The Problems of Human Acclimation in the Tropics."

Josué de Castro went to work, from 1940, the Food Service and Social Security (SAPS), and founded the Brazilian Society of Food. Was an official guest of various countries to study the problems of food and nutrition, was in Argentina in 1942, the United States, in 1943, the Dominican Republic and Mexico in 1945 and France in 1947.

In 1946, he published the book "Geography of Hunger". In 1951, Joshua was elected chairman of the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), going to travel through several countries and see the problems of hunger, especially in developing countries. His ideas were published in the book "Geopolitics of Hunger" in 1952.

Josué de Castro was federal deputy for Pernambuco, the Brazilian Labor Party, from 1954 to 1958 and from 1958 to 1962. In the latter year he was appointed ambassador to Brazil at the International Development Conference in Geneva, Switzerland. In 1964, President João Goulart was overthrown by a military coup, and Joshua had his rights revoked, losing the post of ambassador.

Exiled, he moved to Paris, where he was appointed professor of geography at the University of Vincennes, where he developed research and traveled to several countries in Europe, Africa and Latin America, seeking their support.

Josué de Castro died in Paris on September 24, 1974.