Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) was an astronomer, mathematician, physician and Polish religious. He developed the heliocentric theory, in which placed the sun at the center of the solar system. He explained how the seasons occur.
It showed that we do not see the stars in the same heavenly position in Italy and Egypt, and we can not even see the Northern Hemisphere, stars we see in the South. He presented detailed account of the Earth's movements, Moon and planets.
Nicolaus Copernicus was born in Torun, Poland, on February 19, 1473, into a family of wealthy merchants. Torun was a thriving commercial center, and his father as well as merchant, was a magistrate and municipal leader. Nicholas was the youngest of four children. She was orphaned when he was 10 years, being brought up by a maternal uncle, Lucas Watzelrode, future bishop of Ermlend.
At 18, Copernicus entered the University of Krakow in the capital time of Poland, a city known for its wealth and culture. The University was famous for undertaking the study of mathematics as the foundation of astronomy and frequented by students from Germany, Hungary, Italy, Switzerland and Sweden. The language spoken among the students was Latin. The important books were written in Latin and all educated people should master it.
At 24, Nicholas Copernicus went to Italy, where he studied Canon Law for three years. In 1501, he returned to Poland, is ordered priest and is named canon of Frauenburg Cathedral. tireless scholar, with 30 years back to Italy where he studied the classical culture of Greece, deepen their mathematical knowledge and studying medicine at the universities of Rome, Ferrara and Padua. In 1506, he returned permanently to Poland,
Back in Poland, Nicolaus Copernicus is fitted to the wall of the tower surrounding the Cathedral, which you served as an observatory and, later became known as "Copernicus Tower," where it will be dedicated to the preparation if your new revolutionary theory of the universe initiated during the years he studied in Italy.
The new planetary system envisioned by Copernicus contradicted the geocentric ideas of Ptolemy - that the Earth was the center of the universe and around it revolved all celestial bodies. No one occurred doubt this conception - the geocentric - even for the Bible and the Church accepted as indisputable truth.
The idea of Copernicus that the sun, not the Earth, was the center of the universe, the Earth instead of being static as previously thought, which revolved around the sun and this route corresponds to the terrestrial year, Earth was a movement on itself, from which you should seek the explanation for the succession of days and nights, it was a sacrilege for the time.
In 1512, Nicolaus Copernicus published his first book "Small Commentary". The publication caused a stir: some welcomed with suspicion and hostility to others, Copernicus was a visionary or a madman.
The compendium of 6 volumes guarding the theories of Copernicus' On the Revolutions of Celestial Bodies ", completed in 1530, was not published until 1543, after 30 years have passed. It is said that the first printed copy of Copernicus' work came at the hands of the astronomer on the last day of his life. On the cover was written "De revolutionibus Orbium celesti" (The Movement of Celestial Bodies).
Although the Heliocentric theory of Copernicus has found some supporters among his contemporaries, the system was only really established after the work of Kepler and Galileo Galilei.
Nicolaus Copernicus died in Frauenberg, Poland, on May 24, 1543.