In 1808, the English scientist John Dalton proposed an explanation for the property of matter. This is the first atomic theory that provides the basis for the currently known atomic model.
The constitution of the subject has been the subject of studies since ancient times. The thinkers Leucipo (500 BC) and Democritus (460 BC) formulated the idea that there is a limit to the smallness of particles.
They claimed that they would become so small that they could not be divided. This last particle was called an atom. The word is derived from the Greek radicals that together mean what cannot be divided.
He demonstrated that these rays could be interpreted as a beam of particles charged with negative electrical energy.
In 1887 Thomson suggested that electrons were a universal constituent of matter. He presented the first ideas concerning the internal structure of atoms.
Thomson indicated that atoms should consist of uniformly distributed positive and negative electric charges.
He discovered this tiny particle and thus established the theory of the electric nature of matter. He concluded that electrons were constituents of all types of matter, as he observed that the electron charge / mass ratio was the same for any gas employed in his experiments.
In 1897 Thomson became recognized as the " father of the electron ".
In this Rutherford essay, you noticed that some particles were totally blocked. Other particles were unaffected, but most of them overpassed the sheet and deviated. According to him, this behavior could be explained by the electrical repulsion forces between these particles.
From his observations, he stated that the atom was nucleated and its positive part concentrated in an extremely small volume, which would be the nucleus itself.
The Rutherford Atomic Model, known as the planetary model, corresponds to a miniature planetary system in which electrons move in circular orbits around the nucleus.
The theory of Danish physicist Niels Bohr established the following atomic conceptions:
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