Since 1500, this area has been suffering from deforestation, burning and environmental degradation.
This is why the vegetation currently accounts for only 7% of the original forest, with medium and large trees, constituting a dense and closed forest .
Its area covers the east, southeastern and southern coasts of Brazil and, in addition, a part of Paraguay and Argentina.
Among the Brazilian states, it is present in 17 of them: Alagoas, Bahia, Ceará, Goiás, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Paraiba, Paraná, Pernambuco, Piaui, Sergipe, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Sao Paulo, Espirito Santo, Rio de Janeiro and Santa Catarina.
The forests that make up the Atlantic Forest are:
It also adds the following ecosystems :
According to data from the Ministry of Environment, in the Atlantic Forest there are approximately 20,000 plant species corresponding to more than 35% of the existing species in Brazil.
Studies show a greater diversity of trees per hectare, higher than that found in the Peruvian Amazon. This may represent the highest tree diversity per area unit in the world !
They are bromeliads, begonias, orchids, ipe, palm trees, quaresmeira, redwood, vines, bryophytes, rosewood, peroba, jambo, pink jequitibá, cedar, tapiriria, andira, pineapple and fig trees.
According to current research, 200 Brazilian plant species are endangered and 117 belong to this biome.
Similarly, the fauna is very rich. According to studies carried out, the Atlantic Forest is home to 849 bird species, 370 amphibian species, 200 reptile species, 270 mammal species and about 350 fish species .
Many of these animals are at risk of extinction: golden lion tamarin, howler monkey, giant anteater, deer, skunk, agouti, giant armadillo, mono-charcoal, guinea fowl, otter, coati, tapir, jaguar, ocelot, capybara, etc.
The climate of the Atlantic Forest is predominantly humid tropical , influenced by humid air masses from the Atlantic Ocean.
Also presents other microclimates throughout the forest, since the large trees that make up the vegetation generate shade and moisture.
In addition to the humid coastal tropical climate present in the northeastern region, the Atlantic Forest also encompasses the tropical altitude climates in the southeastern region, and the humid subtropical climates. South region.
Its average temperatures and air humidity are high all year round and rainfall is regular and well distributed.
Assim como a diversidade natural, há uma grande diversidade cultural e povos tradicionais.
These communities are the indigenous , the quilombolas, the caiçaras and riverine communities that live a deep relationship with nature.
Depending on their livelihoods, they use their resources sustainably for food, crafts, and other purposes.